# Reference Positions

The Backgammon Reference Positions are for beginners and intermediate players. At the moment, these are all cube reference positions. If you are just starting out as a serious backgammon player, it will take time to collect cube reference positions. I haven’t written articles on all of these positions. However, I plan to write articles on all of these reference positions. You will find, already written, full articles under “Cube Action” and “Checker Play” on the main menu..

All reference positions in this column can be downloaded as a printable pdf. Feel free to download.

Collecting reference positions is essential but time-consuming. However, the real challenge is how you will remember them. I use 3 main methods.

**Symmetry** – for some positions, I start off with a position where both sides of the board are symmetrical and then I work from there. The idea is that you only have to memorise one position and then, you can make mental shifts for variations of that position.

**Keeping one side of the board in the starting position** – When I look at early game cubes, I usually keep one side of the board in the starting position. Remembering the position one player’s checkers is easier than remembering the position of both player’s checkers. Although these reference positions are artificial, you can do mental shifts from these positions. Even if you used a real position that you came across in a game, it is unlikely that you will end up in the exact position again. Therefore, you will be mental shifting anyway.

**Lists of Numbers** – For some positions, the best way to remember then is by using lists of numbers.

## Reference Positions

### 2 point Blitz (6): 2 vs 1 back – 5 point Made

In previous articles, I looked at 2 point blitz positions where both players had 2 checkers back. In this series, I will look at how much more ammunition white needs ....

### 2 point Blitz (5): 2 back each – 1 point Made

This article is the 5th part of my 2 point blitz series. In Parts 1, 2, 3 and 4, I looked at 2 point blitz boards, when the potential blitzer ....

### 2 point Blitz (4) – 2 back each – 2 point Made

This article is the 4th part of my 2 point blitz series. In Parts 1, 2, and 3, I looked at 2 point blitz boards, when the potential blitzer has ....

### 2 point Blitz (3) – 2 back each – 3 point Made

This article is the 3rd part of my 2 point blitz series. In Parts 1 and 2, I looked at 2 point blitz boards, when the potential blitzer has made ....

### 2 point Blitz (2) – 2 back each: 4 point Made

In my previous article on 2 point board blitz positions, I looked at situations when the potential blitzer (white) has a 2 point board, with the 5 point made. I ....

### 2 point Blitz (1) – 2 back each – 5 point Made

2 Point Early Game Blitz Positions The most important cube positions are positions that occur early in the game. This is because all backgammon games have an early game. Not ....

### Behind a 4 Prime: 1 on bar vs 1 at the edge (3)

Using Symmetry for Reference Positions In the first article on using symmetry for cube reference positions, I examined cube reference positions where white is thinking of doubling. Black had one ....

### Behind a 4 Prime: 1 on bar vs 1 at the edge (2)

Using Symmetry for Reference Positions In the previous article, I looked at cube reference positions where white is considering doubling. Black had one checker on the bar, which was facing ....

### Behind a 4 Prime: 1 on bar vs 1 at the edge (1)

Using Symmetry for Reference Positions Reference positions may seem difficult to memorise. In this series of articles, I will show how you can figure out the cube action on a ....

### 33 Reference Positions: On the bar vs on the board

An important criterion, for a good reference position in backgammon, is that the position should be easy to remember. In the early game, I like to keep one side’s checkers ....

### 55 Reference Positions: On the bar vs on the board

Checker on the bar vs Loose on the board When using reference positions, it is useful to simplify one side of the board. Some players just use the position that ....